What is a hysterectomy?

Hysterectomy is a surgery to remove a woman’s uterus.   The uterus is where the baby grows during pregnancy. The lining of the uterus is the source of menstrual blood.

 You may need a hysterectomy for many reasons. This surgery can be used to treat some chronic pain as well as certain types of cancers and infections.

 The rate of uterine resection varies depending on the cause of the surgery. In most cases, the entire uterus is removed. The doctor may also remove the ovaries and fallopian tubes during the procedure. The ovaries are organs that produce estrogen and other hormones. The fallopian tubes are the structures that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus.

Abdominal hysterectomy means removal of the uterus and sometimes the ovaries. The abdomen is made by making a longitudinal or transverse surgical incision in the wall below the abdomen. Are absorbed spontaneously and if they are not absorbed, after an introduction, abdominal hysterectomy means removal of the uterus and various other things are performed.

The most common cause of hysterectomy is the presence of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

Due to the role of postoperative care in complete and faster recovery and prevention of postoperative complications, the following care recommendations are suggested for the time after surgery

 After the hysterectomy, you will no longer menstruate and you will not be able to conceive

Infection control after abdominal hysterectomy surgery

Applying the following tips will help:

  • Keep the surgical site clean
  • You can take a bath 48 hours after surgery with the permission of your doctor
  • Keep the surgical site dry
  • Tell your doctor immediately if you have any symptoms such as redness and warmth of the surgical site, severe pain, fever, white discharge, and sometimes a foul odor from the surgical site.
  • Take a light shower daily
  • Ask your doctor about the need to use ready-made (surgical) dressings on the surgical site.
  • Use prescribed antibiotics as directed by your doctor.

The stitches are usually absorbed spontaneously and if they are not absorbable, they are removed after a week.

Alternatives to Hysterectomy

According to the National Women’s Health Network, hysterectomy is the second most common surgical procedure performed on women in the United States. This operation is a safe and low-risk surgery. 

However, a hysterectomy may not be the best option for all women. This surgery should not be performed on women who still want to have children unless other options are available.

 Fortunately, many diseases that can be treated with hysterectomy can be treated in other ways. For example, hormone therapy can be used to treat endometriosis. 

 You and your doctor can discuss your options and determine the best choice for your particular condition

Fibroids can be treated with other types of surgeries that hold the uterus in place. However, in some cases, a hysterectomy is clearly the best choice. This surgery is usually the only option for treating cancer of the uterus or cervix.

What are the types of hysterectomy?

 There are several different methods for hysterectomy surgery.

Partial hysterectomy

 During a partial hysterectomy, your doctor will only remove part of your uterus. Your cervix may remain intact.

Complete hysterectomy

 During a complete hysterectomy, the doctor removes the entire uterus, including the cervix. If your cervix is ​​removed, you will no longer need to have an annual Pap smear. However, you should continue to have regular pelvic exams.

Hysterectomy and salpingo-oophrectomy

 During a hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, the doctor removes the uterus with one or both ovaries and fallopian tubes. If both ovaries are removed, you may need hormone replacement therapy.

How is a hysterectomy performed?

 Hysterectomy is performed in several ways. All procedures require general anesthesia or local anesthesia. General anesthesia puts you to sleep during the surgery so you do not feel pain.

Local anesthesia numbs your body below the waistline, but you will stay awake during surgery. This type of anesthesia is sometimes combined with a sedative, which helps you stay asleep and relaxed during the procedure.

  • Abdominal hysterectomy

During abdominal hysterectomy surgery, your doctor will remove your uterus through a large incision in your abdomen. Its cut may be vertical or horizontal. Both types of incisions tend to heal and cause few scars.

  • Vaginal hysterectomy

 During vaginal hysterectomy surgery , the uterus is removed through a small incision made inside the vagina. There are no external incisions, so no scars will be visible.

  • Laparoscopic hysterectomy

 During laparoscopic hysterectomy, the doctor uses a small instrument called a laparoscope. A laparoscope is a long, narrow tube with high-intensity light and a high-resolution camera in front of it.

The tool is inserted through incisions in the abdomen. Three or four small incisions are made instead of one large incision. When the surgeon can see the uterus, he cuts the uterus into small pieces and removes one piece at a time.

What are the risks of a hysterectomy?

 Removal of the uterus is considered a completely safe procedure. As with all major surgeries, there are associated risks. Some people may have an adverse reaction to the anesthetic. There is also a risk of severe bleeding and infection around the incision site.

 Other risks include damage to surrounding tissues or organs, including:

  • Bladder
  • Blood vessels
  • Intestines

These risks are rare. However, if they do occur, you may need a second operation to correct them.

Recovery from hysterectomy

You will have to stay in the hospital for two to five days  after the hysterectomy . Your doctor will prescribe painkillers for you and monitor your vital signs such as breathing and heart rate. It also encourages you to walk after surgery. Walking helps prevent blood clots from forming in the legs

 If you have had a vaginal hysterectomy , your vagina is bandaged with sterile gauze to control bleeding. Doctors remove the gases within a few days after surgery. However, you may experience a bloody or brown discharge from the vagina for about 10 days. Using a menstrual pad can protect your clothes from staining.

When you leave the hospital and return home, keep walking. You can walk around in or around your neighborhood. However, you should refrain from doing certain activities during your recovery. These activities include the following:

  • Pushing and pulling objects, such as a vacuum cleaner
  • Lifting heavy equipment
  • to bend
  • Sex

 If you have had a vaginal hysterectomy or a laparoscopic hysterectomy, you may be able to return to most of your regular activities within three to four weeks. If you have had an abdominal hysterectomy, your recovery time will be slightly longer. You should be fully recovered in about four to six weeks.

Pain control after abdominal hysterectomy

  • Use painkillers prescribed by your doctor to control the severity of your pain. Usually gelofen, mefenamic acid and diclofenac anal suppository are prescribed.
  • Support the surgical site with your hand when sneezing, coughing, walking, or moving
  • Avoid stretching the operation site

Be sure to tell your doctor if you have severe or resistant pain

What to eat after abdominal hysterectomy?

Applying the following tips will help in this case. The start of feeding usually starts 24 hours after the surgery with the opinion and order of the treating physician or fluid diet.

  • If there are no restrictions, try to drink enough fluids (8 to 10 glasses) during the day.
  • Avoid bloated foods such as artificial juices and legumes for a few days after surgery.
  • Try to prevent constipation by consuming enough fluids and laxative foods such as olive oil, figs and plums.
  • In case of constipation, with the permission of your doctor, you can use magnesium hydroxide syrup (one tablespoon after each meal until the problem is resolved. Be careful not to overdose on it because it causes diarrhea.

Exercise after hysterectomy

It helps to resume the following recommendations:

24 hours after surgery, you will be able to get out of bed and walk.

Walking, walking and light activities at home are essential because they prevent blood clots from forming in the limbs and speed up your healing process.

Use simple medical bandages for easy and comfortable movement. Be careful not to tie it too tightly.

Avoid strenuous activity.

Do not lift heavy objects for up to 6 weeks.

Avoid driving for up to 2 weeks.

Set a regular rest schedule for yourself.

Sexual intercourse should be avoided for 4 to 6 weeks after surgery. Get more information from your doctor about this.

Tell your doctor immediately if you have any of the following symptoms:

  1. Severe and abnormal pain
  2. Persistent fever
  3. Bleeding or discharge from the surgical site
  4. Existence of any of the symptoms of infection (mentioned earlier)
  5. urinary incontinence
  6. Excessive vaginal bleeding

Essential points after hysterectomy surgery

  • Empty your bladder at short intervals throughout the day to prevent bladder dysfunction and urination.
  • Avoid keeping urine in the bladder for a long time.
  • Sometimes you may have a thin, pale discharge or spots for a few days. Tell your doctor if this discharge increases.
  • Schedule an appointment with your doctor according to a set schedule.

Take the medication prescribed by your doctor as directed and in a timely manner.

After discharge from the hospital, contact your doctor if the following occur:

  • Symptoms of infection, including fever and chills
  • Redness, swelling, increased pain, excessive bleeding, leakage or any discharge from the incision site
  • Cough, shortness of breath or chest pain
  • Pain, burning, urgency or frequent urination or persistent blood in the urine
  • Swelling, redness or pain in the leg
  • Pain that you can not control with the medication you are given
  • Lightheadedness or fainting
  • Nausea or vomiting that you can not control with the medication prescribed to you or lasts more than 2 days.
  • Severe bleeding
  • Cut opening
  • If you think you have an emergency problem, call the emergency medical service right away.
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